Turkey-Kurdish (PKK) Conflict (1978-)

The Kurdish–Turkish conflict is an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and various Kurdish insurgent groups, which have demanded separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan, or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds inside the Republic of Turkey. The main rebel group is the Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK (Kurdish: Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan). Although insurgents have carried out attacks in many regions of Turkey, the insurgency is mainly in southeastern Turkey. The PKK's military presence in Iraq's Kurdistan Region, from which it also launches attacks on Turkey, has resulted in the Turkish military carrying out frequent ground incursions and air and artillery strikes in the region, despite the fact that the United States and Iraq have warned Turkey. The conflict has particularly affected Turkey's tourism industry and has cost the Economy of Turkey an estimated 300 to 450 billion dollars, mostly military costs.

Since the PKK was founded on 27 November 1978, it has been involved in armed clashes with Turkish security forces. The full-scale insurgency, however, did not begin until 15 August 1984, when the PKK announced a Kurdish uprising. The first insurgency lasted until 1 September 1999, when the PKK declared a unilateral cease-fire. The armed conflict was later resumed on 1 June 2004, when the PKK declared an end to its cease-fire. Since summer 2011, the conflict has become increasingly violent with resumption of large-scale hostilities. In 2013 the Turkish Government and the jailed PKK leader Abdullah Öcalan started a new process regarding the Kurdish question. On 21 March 2013, Öcalan announced the end of armed struggle and a ceasefire with peace talks. On July 25, 2015, the PKK finally cancelled their 2013 ceasefire after a year of tension due to various events when the Turks bombed their positions in Iraq, in the midst of their defense against ISIS.

Kurds in Erbil Protest Turkish Airstrikes Against the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), July 2015

Kurds in Erbil Protest Turkish Airstrikes Against the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), July 2015

Taken on: 2015-07-25
Source: Dilbar/Twitter

Turkish Armor Deployed Against PKK during Escalation of Summer, 2012

Turkish Armor Deployed Against PKK during Escalation of Summer, 2012

Taken on: 2012-08-08
Source: Voice of America (VOA)

Turkey Reinforces Border After Kurdish Gains in Syria, 2012

Turkey Reinforces Border After Kurdish Gains in Syria, 2012

Taken on: 2012-08-06
Source: Voice of America (VOA)

Kurdish PKK Fighters Training in Mountains, 2012

Kurdish PKK Fighters Training in Mountains, 2012

Taken on: 2012-01-01
Source: VOA

Anti-PKK Demonstration, Istanbul

Anti-PKK Demonstration, Istanbul

Taken on: 2007-10-22
Source: QuartierLatin1968/Wikipedia

London PKK Support

London PKK Support

Taken on: 2003-04-01
Source: Francis Tyers/CC 3.0

Sabiha Gökçen and her colleagues

Sabiha Gökçen and her colleagues

Taken on: 1937-05-06
Source: Wikipedia/Turkish Airforce

Turkish soldiers and local people of Dersim region

Turkish soldiers and local people of Dersim region

Taken on: 1937-03-04
Source: Wikipedia/Turkish Army

Halis-Ihsan Nuri-Ferzende

Halis-Ihsan Nuri-Ferzende

Taken on: 1928-05-05
Source: Wikipedia/T.C.

Koçgiri Rebels

Koçgiri Rebels

Taken on: 1920-04-04
Source: Wikipedia/Sewas Maciran Habes